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GLOSSARIES OF TRANSLATION SCIENCE TERMINOLOGY

A
Author's translation - this is the most reliable kind of translation, because nobody but the author knows the details of the original text best.
Adequacy of a translation - re-construction of unity of form and content of the original text by means of another language.
Analysis - in the process of translation the consecutive division of the text (utterance) into simple independent indivisible notional parts for discovering logical connections between them.
Analysis of the text - stylistic analysis and interpretation of the text in the lessons for studying foreign language as a tutorial method.
Annotative translation - a kind of translation that consists of annotation of the original text in another language.
Annotation - a brief characteristics of a primary document that renders its content in maximum generalized form and sometimes makes its evaluation.
Aspect of the language - one of the constituent elements of the language. At present the following aspects of the language are distinguished: phonetics, lexicon, grammar, cultural linguistics.
Auditory perception - listening comprehension and understanding of speech.
Activity - Human activity connected with usage of language is called language activity.
Addition - Additions are necessary when some meaning from the original text is rendered by different means that cannot be used in the original language.
Aim of theory of translation - discovery of essence of translation, its mechanisms, ways of its realization that influence it and regulate its norms.
Aim of literary translation - to introduce a literary work in a foreign language to the audience not knowing that foreign language.
Accurate translation - translation is characterized by semantic accuracy.
 B
Bilingual - A person who speaks two languages perfectly.
Bilingualism - speaking two languages with equal ease. There is distinguished natural and artificial bilingualism.
C
Conventionally loan situation - a translation situation that provides for mutually monosemantic information.
Category of text - certain details of systemic organization of a text.
Convergence - approach, similarity, likeness.
Consultant - a translator and a professional linguist helping different specialists with his/her knowledge.
Continuity of simultaneous interpretation - continuity and inner coherence in work of a simultaneous interpreter.
Criticism of translation - a separate branch of literary critical approach to the analysis of text of translation.
Contextual theory of translation - contextual theory of translation exceeds the scope of interlingual transformations and suggests resorting to reality.
Complications of translation - translation is a complicated kind of intellectual activity, and its complication in different fields increases.
Contracted translation - a text translated in a shortened way compared to the original.
Comparative linguistics - a branch of linguistics which has an aim of comparative study of two languages for finding their similarities and differences at all levels of the language structure.
Comparative analysis of texts in translation - based upon comparison of existing phenomena in different languages.
Cliché - a ready language formula, which has significantly lost its initial meaning and has a positive or a negative tone.
Clarity of translation - an indicator of quality of translation that characterises the clarity of presentation in a translated text.
Code - There are distinguished an outgoing subjective code and code of the translated text.
Code of the original text - the language of the original text.
Code of the translated text - the language of translation.
To code - to convert information from one code system into another.
D
Double language proficiency (bilingualism) - equal proficiency in two languages.
Decoding (to decode) -  to convert any information from the coding system of the initial source into the coding system of source dubbing and/or addressee.
Decompression - introduction of extra words or sentences to the translation.
Denotation - A fragment of reality denoted by a certain message. The same as referent.
Determinants of translation - language system, language norm, literary tradition, national cultural tradition, lap of time.
Dictation-translation - one of practice exercises in foreign language study lessons.
Discourse - an optional text fragment consisting of more then one sentence or an independent part of the sentence.
Differentiation - restriction of meaning in translation.
Discrepancy - fragments of outgoing or translated text, containing not rendered or extra information.
Dictionary - a collection of words set in alphabetical order, with description, commentary or translation into another language.
E
Equivalence of translation -  a maximal identity of all notional levels of the original text and its translation.
Equivalent compliance - a variant of translation when a meaning of a word fully coincides in two languages.
Equivalent translation - a translation performed at the level necessary and sufficient for rendering of permanent plane of content.
Execution of a translation - a final arrangement of the translated text. A translation might be executed in a written or verbal way.
F
Factors defining the complexity of simultaneous interpretation - psychophysical discomfort arising from the necessity to listen and speak at the same time.
Forms of translation - written translation and interpretation; their variants: translation from writing, bilateral translation, consecutive interpretation, simultaneous interpretation.
Functional equivalence of translation - is based upon defining of functions of interaction of text elements by comparison of reaction of text recipient with that to the text in the original language.
Foreign speech - a speech in foreign language. Utterances of other people included in the text by a certain author.
G
Generalization - substitution of a translated word having a narrow specific meaning with a foreign-language equivalent having broader and generalized meaning.
Generalization of a notion - a method of translation containing conversion from a specific to a generic term.
Glossary - an explanatory dictionary of obsolete and little used words and expressions found in some antique literary work.
Grammar - Grammar composition of the language. Description of grammar composition of the language.
H
History of translation - a discipline researching the position, role and evolution of translation under conditions of communication development between people.
History of translation activity - a discipline of science about translation that researches the conditions of formations of requirements for translation and translator in different historical eras.
I
Idiolect - a complex of personal peculiarities characterizing the language of a certain person.
Idiomatic expression - a set expression, which meaning isn't motivated by its constituent words.
Invariant in translation - an invariant is the information that should remain unchanged in the process of translation.
Invariant in simultaneous interpretation - the most informative part of the message concerning its semantics and meaning.
Invariant of translation - a total of functional characteristics of the text or its communicative goal.
Invariant of a massage - a permanent notional essence of a message that remains unchanged.
Interpretation - a translation including engaging linguistic data.
Interpretation (verbal translation) - a notion incorporating all kinds of translation and providing for verbal execution.
Interpretation by listening - verbal translation of a text perceived by listening. It comprises two important kinds of professional interpretation: consecutive and simultaneous.
Image of situation - a product of learning, understanding, description and transformation of a situation in communicative act.
K
Kinds of translation -  fictional translation and specialized translation.
Kinds of linguistic activity - writing, reading, utterance, listening, translation.
Kinds of equivalence - there are five kinds of equivalence: denotative, connotative, textual normative, pragmatic, formal.
L
Loan (word) - a loan gained through word-for-word translation of a word or a word-combination.
Loan translation - Translation by parts with their consecutive combination in a complex.
Lexicon - the total of words of a language, its word stock.                
Lexicography - a branch of linguistics dealing with theory and practice of making dictionaries.
Lexicography of translation -  a new developing branch of linguistics.
Lexicology - a branch of linguistics for research of lexicon of the language.
Lexicon (vocabulary) an explanatory dictionary of mostly narrowly used words from a specific field of knowledge.
Linguistics of the text - a branch of linguistics for research of principles of text composition and structure.
Logical and semantic characteristic - a logical expression of a semantic meaning.
Literalism - A translator's mistake that is the result of correspondence of formal or semantic components of two languages.
Laconicism of a translation - an indicator of quality of translation that characterises the brevity of form of initial text rendering; absence of word redundancy.
Levels of equivalence of translation - there are five so called levels of equivalence where the two first (the level of words and word combinations and the level of sentence) correlate with direct interlanguage transformations and the other allow quite loose interpretation of content of the translated text on the basis of wider context.
Literary (belles-lettres) translation - a kind of translation functioning in the field of belles-letters literature.
Literary text - an individual literary work, written in a certain style; an integral unit within the system of texts of similar kind.
Language of the original - a language of the text that shall be translated.
M
Macro translation - translation shift, that means transfer from one linguistic level to another or from one category to another.
Meta language of translation - this is a complex of structural linguistic characteristics, allowing describing the process of translation quite completely.
Method of notation - a method of consecutive translation, which provides the usage of notation as backup means of memory.
Method of translation - method of translation is not a fixed principle existing in reality but a purposeful system of interconnected devices considering kind and way of translation.
Method of text segmentation - one of methods of written translation, consisting of division of the initial test into segment that creates key notional points for execution of translation.
Method of transformation - used in the system of notations in consecutive interpretation, when several words are transformed into a more convenient unit.
Method of transformation - lexical, syntactical and semantic transformations.
Methodology of translation - a total of methods and devices of practical activity of a translator received in course of translation education.
Micro translation - rendering of lexical units and grammatical forms.
Motivation - a need in some act or activity.
Medium of information - a representative of any language community.
Monolingual dictionary - a dictionary where all information is rendered by means of a single language.
N
Neologisms - translation of neologisms is often connected with creation of new language matches, language terms in the language of translation.
Non-translability -
Non-translatable units are translated due to the ability of a translator to use different methods of translation.
O
Omission - reduction and compression of a text by omission of semantically redundant elements of the source text.
Original test - a source text of a translation. A text from which the translation is made.
Orientation of a translator in a source text - a process of obtaining information needed for making decision about the meaning content of the text.
P
Peculiarities of translation of military materials - in military translation accuracy of translation is very important.
Phraseological variant - a figurative phraseological unit in the language of translation that corresponds to the meaning of the phraseological unit in the original text.
Pattern - a standard, a sample blindly imitated.
Q
Quality of translation - an estimation factor of a ready translation that is defined by accuracy, quality and literariness of a translated text.
R
Re-construction - in the process of translation, the completion of utterance or writing in the language of translation.
S
Semantically adequate translation - a translation rendering denotative meaning of a source utterance and complying with the norms of the language of translation.
Semantic literalism - a mistake of a translator that is the result of rendering of word or word combination semantic components not including other factors.
Syntactic replacement: - rendering of part of a sentence of a translated text by another syntactic construction.
Simultaneous reading of a text translated in advance - a translator reads a previously prepared written text of a translation, adapting to the speech of a speaker.
Simultaneous interpretation - a verbal interpretation of a message from one language into another, performed by an interpreter of a message along with a translated text.
Simultaneous interpretation by listening - Simultaneous aural interpretation is usually called simultaneous interpretation proper. 
Simultaneous interpretation from the sheet -  An interpreter performs interpretation on the basis of the written text of a speech previously given to him/her, adjusting themselves to the speech of a speaker, and making necessary amendments.
Special theories of translation - areas of theory of translation defined by functional and communicative field of translator's activity that include forms of translation, kinds and genres of translation.
Stylistic modification - replacement in the process of translation of elements of the utterance that belong to one functional style with the elements of another style.
Stylistic aspect of translation - consists of correct selection of lexico-grammatical means.
Structure of the translator's activity - a succession or any other system of translation actions.
Structure of translation - a certainly organized schematic expression of really existing notional relations in translation.
Sources of the translator's information - they are divided into general, used by all translators, and specialized, used by technical translators mostly.
Specification - a translation device which means that the translated unit is more specific then the original one.
Science about translation - this science researches a special kind of the linguistic activity -- translation.
Source - a participant of a communicative act being a source of a message for translation. The source is an author of a source text.
Specialized translation - the translation of materials of a certain field of knowledge with its terminological nomenclature.
Simplified translation - a translation where the text is made stylistically uniform, this is a higher level of translation compared to interlinear translation.
Stages of translator's activity - a procedure of handling information of the original.
T
Text of translation - a real utterance, a sentence said or written by a translator or a combination of sentences of any length.
Texts in translation - there is a source text designated for translation (the original); a translated text resulting from translation is a derivative text.
Theory of correspondence - a theory based upon a statement that a translated text always contains some information that is absent in the source text.
Theory of translation - a logically motivated model of bi-lingual communication.
Technique of translation - a sum of professional methods used in process of translational activity.
Technical translation - a translation used for exchange of specialized scientific and technical information between people speaking different languages.
Traditional translation - a translation done by a translator who is not the author of the original text.
Transcribing - a record of words of any language with special symbols that is used for rendering peculiarities of pronunciation of these words. Transcription: a translation method based upon phonetic principle.
Training translation - usually used for training and methodological purpose.
Translation of the whole text - translation of a text without focusing on separate words, sentences or paragraphs.
U
Universal translational notation - a variant of system of notation and symbols for recording information in the process of consecutive interpretation.
Utterance - a range of symbols specially selected, combined due to certain rules and set in a certain order.
Units of translation - a language unit requiring an independent translation solution.
V
Valency - an ability of a linguistic unit to syntactic relations with other linguistic units.
Variant - a formal alteration of a linguistic unit as one of the acceptable ways of its expression.
Verbal to written translation - the same as verbal interpretation by listening.
Verbal to verbal interpretation - the same as verbal interpretation by listening.
W
Way of translation - a way of translation is defined as an objective pattern of transferring from one language into another.