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GLOSSARIES OF TRANSLATION SCIENCE TERMINOLOGY
translation - this is the most reliable kind of
translation, because nobody but the author knows the details of the original
of a translation - re-construction of unity of
form and content of the original text by means of another language.
Analysis - in the process of translation the consecutive division
of the text (utterance) into simple independent indivisible notional parts for
discovering logical connections between them.
of the text - stylistic analysis and interpretation of
the text in the lessons for studying foreign language as a tutorial method.
translation - a kind of translation that consists of
annotation of the original text in another language.
Annotation - a brief characteristics of a primary document that renders its content
in maximum generalized form and sometimes makes its evaluation.
of the language - one of the constituent elements of the
language. At present the following aspects of the language are distinguished: phonetics,
lexicon, grammar, cultural linguistics.
perception - listening comprehension and understanding
Activity - Human activity connected with usage of language is
called language activity.
Addition - Additions are necessary when some meaning from the original text is
rendered by different means that cannot be used in the original language.
theory of translation - discovery of essence of
translation, its mechanisms, ways of its realization that influence it and
regulate its norms.
literary translation - to introduce a literary work
in a foreign language to the audience not knowing that foreign language.
translation - translation is characterized by semantic
Bilingual - A person who speaks two languages perfectly.
Bilingualism - speaking two languages with equal ease. There is
distinguished natural and artificial bilingualism.
loan situation - a translation situation that provides for
mutually monosemantic information.
of text - certain details of systemic organization of a text.
Convergence - approach, similarity, likeness.
Consultant - a translator and a professional linguist helping
different specialists with his/her knowledge.
of simultaneous interpretation - continuity and inner
coherence in work of a simultaneous interpreter.
of translation - a separate branch of literary critical
approach to the analysis of text of translation.
theory of translation - contextual theory of
translation exceeds the scope of interlingual transformations and suggests
resorting to reality.
of translation - translation is a complicated kind of
intellectual activity, and its complication in different fields increases.
translation - a text translated in a shortened way
compared to the original.
linguistics - a branch of linguistics which has an aim
of comparative study of two languages for finding their similarities and
differences at all levels of the language structure.
analysis of texts in translation - based upon comparison of
existing phenomena in different languages.
Cliché - a ready language formula, which has significantly lost
its initial meaning and has a positive or a negative tone.
of translation - an indicator of quality of translation
that characterises the clarity of presentation in a translated text.
Code - There are distinguished an outgoing subjective code and code of the
the original text - the language of the original
the translated text - the language of translation.
code - to convert information from one code system into
language proficiency (bilingualism) - equal
proficiency in two languages.
(to decode) - to convert any information from the
coding system of the initial source into the coding system of source dubbing
Decompression - introduction of extra words or sentences to the
Denotation - A fragment of reality denoted by a certain message.
The same as referent.
of translation - language system, language norm, literary
tradition, national cultural tradition, lap of time.
Dictation-translation - one of practice exercises in foreign language study
Discourse - an optional text fragment consisting of more then one
sentence or an independent part of the sentence.
Differentiation - restriction of meaning in translation.
Discrepancy - fragments of outgoing or translated text, containing
not rendered or extra information.
Dictionary - a collection of words set in alphabetical order, with
description, commentary or translation into another language.
of translation - a maximal identity of all notional levels
of the original text and its translation.
compliance - a variant of translation when a meaning of
a word fully coincides in two languages.
translation - a translation performed at the level
necessary and sufficient for rendering of permanent plane of content.
of a translation - a final arrangement of the
translated text. A translation might be executed in a written or verbal way.
defining the complexity of simultaneous interpretation - psychophysical discomfort arising from the necessity to listen and speak
at the same time.
of translation - written translation and interpretation;
their variants: translation from writing, bilateral translation, consecutive
interpretation, simultaneous interpretation.
equivalence of translation - is based upon defining of
functions of interaction of text elements by comparison of reaction of text
recipient with that to the text in the original language.
speech - a speech in foreign language. Utterances of other
people included in the text by a certain author.
Generalization - substitution of a translated word having a narrow specific meaning with
a foreign-language equivalent having broader and generalized meaning.
of a notion - a method of translation containing conversion
from a specific to a generic term.
Glossary - an explanatory dictionary of obsolete and little used
words and expressions found in some antique literary work.
Grammar - Grammar composition of the language. Description of
grammar composition of the language.
of translation - a discipline researching the position,
role and evolution of translation under conditions of communication development
of translation activity - a discipline of science about
translation that researches the conditions of formations of requirements for
translation and translator in different historical eras.
Idiolect - a complex of personal peculiarities characterizing the
language of a certain person.
expression - a set expression, which meaning isn't
motivated by its constituent words.
in translation - an invariant is the information that
should remain unchanged in the process of translation.
in simultaneous interpretation - the most informative
part of the message concerning its semantics and meaning.
of translation - a total of functional characteristics of
the text or its communicative goal.
of a massage - a permanent notional essence of a message
that remains unchanged.
Interpretation - a translation including engaging linguistic data.
(verbal translation) - a notion incorporating all kinds
of translation and providing for verbal execution.
by listening - verbal translation of a text perceived by
listening. It comprises two important kinds of professional interpretation:
consecutive and simultaneous.
of situation - a product of learning, understanding,
description and transformation of a situation in communicative act.
of translation - fictional translation and specialized
of linguistic activity - writing, reading, utterance,
of equivalence - there are five kinds of equivalence:
denotative, connotative, textual normative, pragmatic, formal.
(word) - a loan gained through word-for-word translation of a
word or a word-combination.
translation - Translation by parts with their
consecutive combination in a complex.
Lexicon - the total of words of a language, its word stock.
Lexicography - a branch of linguistics dealing with theory and
practice of making dictionaries.
of translation - a new developing branch of linguistics.
Lexicology - a branch of linguistics for research of lexicon of the
(vocabulary) an explanatory dictionary of mostly
narrowly used words from a specific field of knowledge.
of the text - a branch of linguistics for research of
principles of text composition and structure.
and semantic characteristic - a logical expression of a
Literalism - A translator's mistake that is the result of
correspondence of formal or semantic components of two languages.
of a translation - an indicator of quality of
translation that characterises the brevity of form of initial text rendering;
absence of word redundancy.
of equivalence of translation - there are five so called
levels of equivalence where the two first (the level of words and word
combinations and the level of sentence) correlate with direct interlanguage
transformations and the other allow quite loose interpretation of content of
the translated text on the basis of wider context.
(belles-lettres) translation - a kind of translation
functioning in the field of belles-letters literature.
text - an individual literary work, written in a certain
style; an integral unit within the system of texts of similar kind.
of the original - a language of the text that shall be
translation - translation shift, that means transfer
from one linguistic level to another or from one category to another.
Meta language of translation - this is a complex of
structural linguistic characteristics, allowing describing the process of
translation quite completely.
of notation - a method of consecutive translation, which
provides the usage of notation as backup means of memory.
of translation - method of translation is not a fixed
principle existing in reality but a purposeful system of interconnected devices
considering kind and way of translation.
of text segmentation - one of methods of written
translation, consisting of division of the initial test into segment that
creates key notional points for execution of translation.
of transformation - used in the system of notations
in consecutive interpretation, when several words are transformed into a more
of transformation - lexical, syntactical and
of translation - a total of methods and devices of
practical activity of a translator received in course of translation education.
translation - rendering of lexical units and grammatical
Motivation - a need in some act or activity.
of information - a representative of any language
dictionary - a dictionary where all information is rendered by means of a single language.
Neologisms - translation of neologisms is often connected with
creation of new language matches, language terms in the language of
Non-translability - Non-translatable
units are translated due to the ability of a translator to use different
methods of translation.
Omission - reduction and compression of a text by omission of
semantically redundant elements of the source text.
test - a source text of a translation. A text from which the
translation is made.
of a translator in a source text - a process of obtaining
information needed for making decision about the meaning content of the text.
of translation of military materials - in military
translation accuracy of translation is very important.
variant - a figurative phraseological unit in the language of
translation that corresponds to the meaning of the phraseological unit in the
Pattern - a standard, a sample blindly imitated.
of translation - an estimation factor of a ready
translation that is defined by accuracy, quality and literariness of a
Re-construction - in the process of translation, the completion of
utterance or writing in the language of translation.
adequate translation - a translation rendering
denotative meaning of a source utterance and complying with the norms of the
language of translation.
literalism - a mistake of a translator that is the
result of rendering of word or word combination semantic components not
including other factors.
replacement: - rendering of part of a sentence of a
translated text by another syntactic
reading of a text translated in advance - a
translator reads a previously prepared written text of a translation, adapting
to the speech of a speaker.
interpretation - a verbal interpretation of a message from
one language into another, performed by an interpreter of a message along with
a translated text.
interpretation by listening - Simultaneous aural interpretation is usually called simultaneous interpretation proper.
interpretation from the sheet - An interpreter performs interpretation on the
basis of the written text of a speech previously given to him/her, adjusting
themselves to the speech of a speaker, and making necessary amendments.
theories of translation - areas of theory of translation
defined by functional and communicative field of translator's activity that
include forms of translation, kinds and genres of translation.
modification - replacement in the process of translation
of elements of the utterance that belong to one functional style with the
elements of another style.
aspect of translation - consists of correct selection
of lexico-grammatical means.
of the translator's activity - a succession or any
other system of translation actions.
of translation - a certainly organized schematic expression
of really existing notional relations in translation.
of the translator's information - they are divided into
general, used by all translators, and specialized, used by technical
Specification - a translation device which means that the translated
unit is more specific then the original one.
about translation - this science researches a
special kind of the linguistic activity -- translation.
Source - a participant of a communicative act being a source of
a message for translation. The source is an author of a source text.
translation - the translation of materials of a certain
field of knowledge with its terminological nomenclature.
translation - a translation where the text is made
stylistically uniform, this is a higher level of translation compared to
of translator's activity - a procedure of handling
information of the original.
translation - a real utterance, a sentence said or
written by a translator or a combination of sentences of any length.
in translation - there is a source text designated for
translation (the original); a translated text resulting from translation is a
of correspondence - a theory based upon a
statement that a translated text always contains some information that is
absent in the source text.
of translation - a logically motivated model of bi-lingual
of translation - a sum of professional methods used in
process of translational activity.
translation - a translation used for exchange of
specialized scientific and technical information between people speaking
translation - a translation done by a translator who is
not the author of the original text.
Transcribing - a record of words of any language with special symbols
that is used for rendering peculiarities of pronunciation of these words. Transcription: a translation method
based upon phonetic principle.
translation - usually used for training and
of the whole text - translation of a text without
focusing on separate words, sentences or paragraphs.
translational notation - a variant of system of
notation and symbols for recording information in the process of consecutive
Utterance - a range of symbols specially selected, combined due to certain rules
and set in a certain order.
of translation - a language unit requiring an independent
Valency - an ability of a linguistic unit to syntactic relations with other
Variant - a formal alteration of a linguistic unit as one of the acceptable ways
of its expression.
to written translation - the same as verbal
interpretation by listening.
to verbal interpretation - the same as verbal
interpretation by listening.
translation - a way of translation is defined as an
objective pattern of transferring from one language into another.