(verbal translation) is a notion that incorporates all kinds of translation
that involve verbal formulation, including such independent forms of
translation as consecutive interpretation, simultaneous interpretation and translation
of the spoken text. Verbal interpretation includes translation of a written and
interpretation is a verbal translation of a message from one language into
another after listening to it. Contrary to simultaneous interpretation, whereby
no special pauses are made in the text for translation and the interpreter
speaks almost simultaneously with the speaker(with a little time lag), by
consecutive interpretation an interpreter speaks in pauses between sentences or
parts of a text.
interpretation as a rule is used during negotiation meetings of state and
political public figures, at press conferences, in work of different
of consecutive interpretation differs from the process of written translation
or simultaneous interpretation. An interpreter waits until the speaker finishes
their speech and then makes a translation of the speech to the audience. For keeping
and rendering of key information, simplifying their work and reducing load upon
their memory interpreters use contracted notation of speech (known as the «translators
notation»). Naturally an interpreter uses abbreviations; he or she doesn't note
word forms and functional words. Such outline is not literal. The goal is to write
down the key words of every sentence, dates, names etc.
performance of consecutive interpretation the professional competence of an
interpreter (a list of knowledge and skills) shall include such components:
- linguistic competence (knowledge of the source language and the language of
- communicative competence;
- translating competence (translating skills)
- technical competence (ability to work with information)
- personal characteristics (a developed memory)
first three components are common for all kinds of translation, and the latter
two are specific for consecutive interpretation.
consecutive interpretation of the whole text after listening to it is a sign of
high proficiency of an interpreter who fulfills their task at the top level. Unlike
simultaneous interpretation that advances linearly, copying the structure of an
outgoing message, consecutive interpretation is not a word-by-word rendering of
a source text but its more or less free interpretation. In consecutive
interpretation there are no "logical gaps". No translation company shall
undertake responsibility for a translation if a customer doesn't give an
interpreter their lecture materials in time.
important thing for consecutive interpretation is establishing psychological
contact with the audience. If a translator has carefully prepared for the interpretation
and their interpretation skills are overall good, then their quick precise
question to the speaker are perceived favourably by the audience, because the
audience is interested in accuracy and completeness of an interpretation. The
most convenient for an interpreter and audience are logical pauses between not
large but logically complete parts of text or sentences.
It is very
important to establish contact with the audience from the very beginning. If
you speak into a microphone, then before beginning of interpretation you should
say a few words to the audience; for example, you may explain that you are an
interpreter and ask whether they hear you well. The audience than will adjust themselves
to your voice and become accustomed to it.
the interpreter's profession the interpreter's voice plays an important role.
An interpreter's voice should sound distinctly and confidently and reach the remotest
corners of the hall (if the interpretation is performed in a lecture hall). It
is not easy to get your voice trained properly and if an interpreter feels that
they are speaking too softly or too loud, they shall train their voice. It is
advisable that they take several lessons of "stage speech". A proper voice
training is important not only for listeners to hear an interpreter well, but
also for an interpreter themselves -- if their voice isn't properly trained, it
soon hoarsens and the interpreter cannot work and speak for a long time.
interpretation in all its kinds is preformed under the circumstances of acute time
shortage, that's why besides knowledge of the language and professional skills
an interpreter is required to have a considerable self-possession and psychical
knowledge of the language, self-possession, communicability, professionalism
are the principal professional traits of our interpreters.