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Let us define first: what the seminar is?

Seminar (Latin seminarium) -- is a form of educational practical lessons, where the pupils (students) discuss the statements, reports and summaries, prepared by them in course of educational research under the guidance of the teacher.

The seminar form appeared in Ancient Greek and Roman schools, where the statements of the pupils were combined with disputes, comments and conclusions of the teachers.

In Soviet school seminars were aimed at in-depth study of different disciplines.

In our times the word "seminar" is often used in the following meanings:

  1. educational seminars: they are aimed at helping students to study better the topic analyzed in the seminar.
  2. business seminars: in those seminars several people read reports for other participants and then all the participants actively discuss them if there are any questions.  
  3. webinars -- interactive seminars.

The field of activity of a translation bureau includes business-seminars, lectures, presentations, where the speaker is a foreign representative.

This kind of events requires an interpreter.

The speaker reads their text with pauses, and the interpreter translates during these pauses for the audience present.

This process is the same for lectures, and for presentation of goods and services.

Lecture (Latin lectio - reading) -- is a verbal systematic and coherent presentation of material concerning any problem, method, issue etc. It is an element of the lecture and seminar system of education. A lecture as a method of education refers to verbal educational methods.

Presentation (Latin praesentatio) -- is a public presentation of something new, newly appeared or created, for example: a book, a magazine, a film, a TV programme, a cosmetic product, an organization etc. This also includes a demonstration in any topic where technical means may be used.

According to classification of kinds (sub-kinds) of interpretation this kind of interpretation is called "verbal consecutive paragraph and phrasal unilateral translation" (interpretation of speeches, lectures etc.).

Aiming of a speech for a relatively large audience defines the structural peculiarities of text of the speech and the manner of its presentation to the audience. The communication of the speaker with the audience differs from their communication with one person. For meeting of communication goal a speaker needs to use somewhat different forms and linguistic means than that they would use in a private conversation.

A speaker's speech can be productive or passive. Productive speech includes any speech not read from notes and not spoken by heart. In other words productive speech means the kind of speech that the speaker created themselves, even if it was thought over or written in detail beforehand.

A written beforehand and read from notes or spoken by heart speech is a passive speech. A passive speech isn't designed for consecutive interpretation.

Usually a price for such interpreter's work increases in 1.5 times, в because the load upon the interpreter increases. Before starting interpretation it is obligatory to be acquainted with the report of a speaker or watch the slides that will be demonstrated at the presentation.