Let us define first: what the seminar is?
Seminar (Latin seminarium) -- is a form of educational practical
lessons, where the pupils (students) discuss the statements, reports and summaries,
prepared by them in course of educational research under the guidance of the
The seminar form appeared in Ancient Greek and
Roman schools, where the statements of the pupils were combined with disputes, comments and conclusions of the teachers.
In Soviet school seminars were aimed at in-depth
study of different disciplines.
In our times the word "seminar" is often used
in the following meanings:
seminars: they are aimed at helping
students to study better the topic analyzed in the seminar.
seminars: in those seminars several
people read reports for other participants and then all the participants
actively discuss them if there are any questions.
- webinars -- interactive seminars.
The field of activity of a translation bureau includes
business-seminars, lectures, presentations, where
the speaker is a foreign
This kind of events requires an interpreter.
The speaker reads their text with pauses, and
the interpreter translates during these pauses for the audience present.
This process is the same for lectures, and for
presentation of goods and services.
Lecture (Latin lectio - reading) -- is a verbal systematic and coherent presentation of material concerning any
problem, method, issue etc. It is an element of the lecture and
seminar system of education. A lecture as a method of education refers to
verbal educational methods.
Presentation (Latin praesentatio) -- is a public presentation of something new, newly appeared or created,
for example: a book, a magazine, a film, a TV programme, a cosmetic product, an
organization etc. This also includes a demonstration
in any topic where technical means may be used.
According to classification of kinds (sub-kinds)
of interpretation this kind of interpretation is called "verbal consecutive
paragraph and phrasal unilateral translation" (interpretation of speeches, lectures etc.).
Aiming of a speech for a relatively large
audience defines the structural peculiarities of text of the speech and the
manner of its presentation to the audience. The communication of the speaker
with the audience differs from their communication with one person. For meeting
of communication goal a speaker needs to use somewhat different forms and linguistic means than that they would use in a private conversation.
A speaker's speech can be productive or
passive. Productive speech includes any speech not read from notes and not
spoken by heart. In other words productive speech means the kind of speech that
the speaker created
themselves, even if it was thought over or written in detail beforehand.
A written beforehand and read from notes or
spoken by heart speech is a passive speech. A passive speech isn't designed for
Usually a price for such interpreter's work
increases in 1.5 times, в because the load upon the
interpreter increases. Before starting interpretation it is obligatory to be acquainted
with the report of a speaker or watch the slides that will be demonstrated at