is a kind translation where the original and the result
of translation appear as texts put down in writing that is a transformation of
a written text created in one language into a written text in another language.
However, translation isn't only a new interpretation of the original; it presents
an original text in a new way, introduces it to another cultural system that
features another guidelines and reference points on its coordinate axes. The translation
itself is perceived from a new angle in this new coordinate system in a new
independent way that differs from the way the original is perceived.
Translation is traditionally treated as one of the most important ways of interaction between national cultures, as an effective means of intercultural communication. Translated literary works become
a part of national culture, contribute to its enrichment and development, and
on the other hand, due to translations literary genres, styles and artistic
devices become widely spread.
So notwithstanding the intention of national
literatures to preserve their originality, their convergence constantly takes
place, that allows researchers to acknowledge the unification of literary process
in the countries with a long tradition of cultural contacts.
Under the contemporary conditions of globalization, when markets open and expand and new business and cultural connections between nations and countries appear, the work of translator as a mediator between cultures became especially meaningful. Every organization, firm or agency has its own individual field of
work and business. That's why every client has a different text, document or
material to be translated.
In course of many years of work, our translators' team has mastered different textual fields and topics. There are the most common kinds of texts translated
in our bureau:
of belles-lettres texts
- Translation of personal documents (Registry Office certificates, certificates from work or from medical institutions,
passports, diplomas, school education certificates etc.)
- Translation of private
correspondence both as hard copies and on-line.
- Translation of business correspondence both as hard copies
- Translation of slides
- Translation of labels
- Translation of sites
- Translation of newspaper and magazine articles
When necessary, a translator makes use of different additional sources of information that provide them with background
knowledge about the text: dictionaries, reference books, consulting with specialists.
Usually a translator performs a complete written translation, abstractive or annotative
translation. Every of
these kinds of translation include particular stages of translator's activity.
an expanded complete written translation a translator should adhere to such rules:
acquainted with the original by looking though it carefully. To read the whole text using additional sources of
information when necessary: dictionaries, reference books, specialized literature etc.
- To write a draft translation of the text, consistently working at the logically selected parts of the original.
- To edit a translation by reading it silently,
to check once again the quality, logic of presentation of the whole translation and make
necessary changes. We have to remember that editing is aimed at improvement of both content and form (structure) of
a written work.
Work at abstractive
translation consists of the following stages:
- preliminary acquaintance with the original, studying
of specialized literature with an aim of learning the terminology, careful
reading of the whole text;
- marking of the text with square brackets for excluding of minor parts
and repetitions (parts of text to be excluded are put in
- reading of the parts that are
left and clearing the text of disproportions and mismatches;
- complete written translation
of the part of the original left outside the
brackets, that should look like a coherent text having the same logical
plan as the original.
Annotative translation is a kind of translation consisting
of making an annotation in the language of translation.
Annotation (from Latin -- a note). Annotation is
a brief characteristic of a book, article of manuscript, their content, aim,
value and so on.
Annotation should inform a reader about the nature of the original (scientific article, technical description, a popular science book etc.).
between an annotation
and a book or an article is also the characteristicsof the original. The amount of an annotative translation in comparison with the original is defined either by the client or
by the editor, or by a translator themselves depending on particular conditions, but it
doesn't exceed 500 printed
The style of
annotative translation of a book or of an article is optional and depends only on the translator's task to characterise the original.