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          Written translation
is a kind translation where the original and the result of translation appear as texts put down in writing that is a transformation of a written text created in one language into a written text in another language. However, translation isn't only a new interpretation of the original; it presents an original text in a new way, introduces it to another cultural system that features another guidelines and reference points on its coordinate axes. The translation itself is perceived from a new angle in this new coordinate system in a new independent way that differs from the way the original is perceived. 
          Translation is traditionally treated as one of the most important ways of interaction between national cultures, as an effective means of intercultural communication. Translated literary works become a part of national culture, contribute to its enrichment and development, and on the other hand, due to translations literary genres, styles and artistic devices become widely spread.

          So notwithstanding the intention of national literatures to preserve their originality, their convergence constantly takes place, that allows researchers to acknowledge the unification of literary process in the countries with a long tradition of cultural contacts.

          Under the contemporary conditions of globalization, when markets open and expand and new business and cultural connections between nations and countries appear, the work of translator as a mediator between cultures became especially meaningful. Every organization, firm or agency has its own individual field of work and business. That's why every client has a different text, document or material to be translated.

In course of many years of work, our translators' team has mastered different textual fields and topics. There are the most common kinds of texts translated in our bureau:

  • Technical texts
  • Medical texts
  • Statutory documents
  • Legal documentation
  • Literary translation
  • Translation of belles-lettres texts
  • Translation of personal documents (Registry Office certificates, certificates from work or from medical institutions, passports, diplomas, school education certificates etc.)
  • Translation of private correspondence both as hard copies and on-line.
  • Translation of business correspondence both as hard copies and on-line.
  • Translation of slides
  • Translation of labels
  • Translation of sites
  • Translation of newspaper and magazine articles
  • etc.

          When necessary, a translator makes use of different additional sources of information that provide them with background knowledge about the text: dictionaries, reference books, consulting with specialists.

          Usually a translator performs a complete written translation, abstractive or annotative translation. Every of these kinds of translation include particular stages of translator's activity.  

          While making an expanded complete written translation a translator should adhere to such rules:

To get acquainted with the original by looking though it carefully. To read the whole text using additional sources of information when necessary: dictionaries, reference books, specialized literature etc.

  1. To write a draft translation of the text, consistently working at the logically selected parts of the original.
  2. To edit a translation by reading it silently, to check once again the quality, logic of  presentation of the whole translation and make necessary changes. We have to remember that editing is aimed at improvement of both content and form (structure) of a written work.

Abstractive translation 

Work at abstractive translation consists of the following stages:

  1. preliminary acquaintance with the original, studying of specialized literature with an aim of learning the terminology, careful reading of the whole text;
  2. marking of the text with square brackets for excluding of minor parts and repetitions (parts of text to be excluded are put in brackets).
  3. reading of the parts that are left and clearing the text of disproportions and mismatches;
  4. complete written translation of the part of the original left outside the brackets, that should look like a coherent text having the same logical plan as the original.

Annotative translation  is a kind of translation consisting of making an annotation in the language of translation.

Annotation (from Latin -- a note). Annotation is a brief characteristic of a book, article of manuscript, their content, aim, value and so on.

Annotation should inform a reader about the nature of the original (scientific article, technical description, a popular science book etc.).

A difference between an annotation and a book or an article is also the characteristicsof the original. The amount of an annotative translation in comparison with the original is defined either by the client or by the editor, or by a translator themselves depending on particular conditions, but it doesn't exceed 500 printed characters.

The style of annotative translation of a book or of an article is optional and depends only on the translator's task to characterise the original.